Justin

Justin Holman is CEO of Aftermarket Analytics, where he leads efforts to develop cutting edge sales forecasting and inventory optimization technology for the Automotive Aftermarket. Prior to joining Aftermarket Analytics, Justin managed corporate consulting for the Strategy & Analytics division at MapInfo Corporation, leading major projects for retail clients including The Home Depot, Darden Restaurants, Bridgestone-Firestone, Sainsbury’s and New York & Company. Before that, Justin served as Vice President of Software Development at LogicTools, now part of IBM's supply chain application software group. Justin holds a B.A. from Claremont McKenna College, a Ph.D. from the University of Oregon and an Executive Management certificate from Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management.

61 Comments

  • Lesson 3 | Geographical Perspectives 6 years ago

    […] Blog post about Continents […]

    • Benjamin 3 months ago

      So, yeah, this is a poor-man’s “I wannabe” article. It can be found right here in this quote “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land.”

      Let’s first establish that modern geology is what modern terms are defined by. Otherwise this teacher, Justin, would be very dead by now having only earned salt for any work he does. The word “salary” comes from the Latin for salt and in the Roman Empire payment was sometimes made in actual salt. Then it was valuable. Today, not so much. But by Justin’s definition, he could only earn Sodium Chloride (not even the many scientific salts, “a chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions”, just “a white crystalline substance which gives seawater its characteristic taste and is used for seasoning or preserving food”, which is sodium chloride), and never get currency or gold.

      Next, modern geographic terminology defines a continent as ” the continents correspond to areas of continental crust that are found on the continental plates, but include continental fragments such as Madagascar that are not counted among the geopolitical continents”. Now, one can argue that the separate geological plates are grouped together politically, but that actually means there are more continents than we conventionally claim, not fewer.

      Lastly, lets look at Justin’s direct conflict in his own words. He is using the tern “continuous land” to mean continent. An island is “continuous land” in of itself. So, when Justin says “The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents”, he is saying islands can be continents, therefore they aren’t. By that logic, anything that is also is not. This is proving that all numbers are equal to zero, and thus math is impossible. Good luck getting anything done without math, especially in science.

      Again, if you are arguing politically that continents don’t exist, thus borders don’t exist and so on, then good luck proving your house has walls and you own anything there.

      • Justin 3 months ago

        Yeah. Sorry you’re so upset about this. Maybe you’d feel better if you posted your own article on your own blog.

  • Jim 3 years ago

    I can’t believe it. This is the most misleading article from a geography teach I haven’t ever seen. The definition of continent is exactly the opposite.

    There are really just 4 continents in the world:

    Afro-Eurasia
    America (North and South combined)
    Antartica
    Australia

    • Justin 3 years ago

      I think this quote says it all: “This is the most misleading article from a geography teach I haven’t ever seen.”

      Sorry to hear you didn’t actually see the article.

    • Pato 2 years ago

      In my opinion, there would be just three large enough landmasses whose continental crusts are independent

      – Euramerafrasia (Europe, America, Africa, Asia, sans Madagascar and Iceland)

      Eurasia and Africa are connected by the Sinai peninsula.
      Eurasia and America’s continental platforms are connected by the Bering strait, whose depth is never more than mere 49 meters.
      Madagascar, Iceland, and lesser islands not laying upon the continental platform do not belong to the continent.

      – Sahul (Australia and New Guinea)

      Australia and New Guinea are conneccted by the Arafura Sea.

      – Antarctica

      • Robert 1 month ago

        Your Euramerafrasia only gets 1 result via Google search LOL.

    • STEVEN 10 months ago

      There are 6 continents:
      australia
      antarctica
      africa
      eurasia
      south am.
      north am.

  • Richard Garcia 2 years ago

    I believe in only 4 continents. AfroEurasia, the Americas (as a whole), Australia and Antarctica.

    • Justin 2 years ago

      Believe what you like, but “continent” = continuous land. That ain’t Australia or Antarctica.

      • James 9 months ago

        Your argument ignores the fact that the Americas are also a separate landmass. If Australia can’t be considered a continent because it is isolated from other continents then nor can the Americas. Therefore Eurasia/Africa being the biggest continuous continent is the only continent.
        If you include the Americas, what’s your justification, their size? You have picked an arbitrary size limit then. What is it based on?
        Australia not only has it’s own continental shelf, it has it’s own fricken tectonic plate: https://earthhow.com/7-major-tectonic-plates/ As does Antarctica.
        God help your students if you pass of this nonsense as an education.

  • Peter Keelback 1 year ago

    Oh no! Another blow to the status of my beloved country, Australia. So not only are we a small economy with an even smaller population, now we are just a dirty big island and not even the biggest one. Please don’t tell our Prime Minister. Our past ones love to swan about the world stage pretending we are an important and influential country. That’s why we end up in so many awful wars/conflicts that we shouldn’t be in and most Australians hate. 😀

  • Bryan b Yee 10 months ago

    This is the most scientifically illiterate thing I have read all week. There are 8 lithospheric plates that house individual continental landmasses. Eurasian, North American, Antarctic, South American, Australian, Arabian, and Indian. You should probably take a Geology 101 class, as your understanding of a continental plate (continent) and an island is significantly flawed.

    • Justin 10 months ago

      Hi Bryan,
      Thanks for your kind words. If you look up the word “continent” you’ll find it doesn’t have its origins in plate tectonics. So your argument is incontinent. See what I did there? 🙂
      Cheers,
      Justin

  • Keso 9 months ago

    I believe there are four continents. America, since I believe that North and South America are connected. Afro-Eurasia. Europe is not a continent, it’s connected to Asia. Eurasia is connected to Africa. Australia, it’s not really connected to another continent. Antarctica, which is kind of an exception since there are no countries on Antarctica.

  • ROMAN 9 months ago

    i know only 4 continets and that is Eurasia, Africa,n.America And S.America.

  • Joseph 7 months ago

    First of all Mr, Yee, it looks like you do not even acknowledge the existence of Africa. I would like to suggest that the only real continent id Africa because it has never moved. All others are man made imaginations and creations. It seems when the Europe names it and defines it, it comes into existence!!. This is all mercantilism at work with a world curved out and defined for the benefit of the European. It is true that just as in History, the story of the European’s experience is what we study in most of our disciplines; why not World Geography. Please give me something authentic to think about to debate!!

  • Robert 6 months ago

    What about Plate Tectonics?

    • Justin 6 months ago

      I keep the concepts separate for a few reasons: (1) I’m a geographer, not a geologist; (2) use of the term “continent” predates plate tectonics and continental drift theory; and, (3) no one refers to the Juan de Fuca plate as a continent. I guess I’m more interested in the proper colloquial place-name usage than any effort to pursue a scientifically sound definition. Mostly it just seems clear that neither Europe, Australia nor Antarctica qualify, at least not to the same extent, as “continuous” land masses.

  • Per 6 months ago

    I can’t understand your reasoning. All land masses are islands surrounded by oceans. Have you picked an arbitrary size limit? And if so what is that size limit and how did you come to that conclusion?

    • Justin 6 months ago

      Try looking at a map, buddy. The “continuous” part of continental applies to North & South America, Africa and Eurasia. It doesn’t apply elsewhere.

      • JPCJ 3 months ago

        Justin, you’re not explaining “continuous” at all. You say N. & S. America are continuous, but Australia is not. You say tectonic plates do not apply to the definition. So what is the criteria that the Americas fill to be considered two “continuous” continents that Australia does not? The only viable reason you have is that the Americas are bigger. So you have picked an arbitrary size limit as your defining feature of a continent, as per Per’s suggestion.

        Or do you mean to suggest that continents MUST be connected? If Africa and Eurasia were separated by a large and deep body of water, would neither then be continents, as they do not “continue” on to another continent? In this hypothetical world, it would seem ridiculous to claim neither are continents as they are such massive land masses, simply because they do not “continue.”

        In my opinion, (as this is all we are really debating; the abstract definitions and categorisations of language) there would be six continents: Africa, Eurasia, Australia, South America, North America, and Antarctica, as well as two subcontinents: The Middle East and India. I base this off the combination of land masses on tectonic plates.

        • Justin 3 months ago

          Thanks for sharing your opinion. You sounded somewhat sensible until you tossed the Middle East into the equation.

        • Robert 1 month ago

          The Middle East is a geopolitical word, the Arabian Subcontinent is a better word to use than the Middle East.

  • turgut 5 months ago

    Europe is a peninsula in east of Asia. Actually Europe is a Western Asia. Finish! This is an undisputed scientific and geographic reality. The acceptance of Europe as a separate continent is because of Christianity, racism, cultural and social discrimination. For example I am a Turkish. Turks actually is an Eurasian nation like Russians. We are not a Middle Eastern. Our real homeland is Tuva Republic in South Siberia district (Altai Mountains). I mean we are actually South Siberian Nations. We are relative wih Finnish, Estonians, Hungarians (Especially Szekely Turks in Romania), Bulgarians, Kipchaks, Cumans, Tatars, Kazakhs, Karaim Turks in Latvia, Gagauz Turks in Moldova, Crimean Turks in Ukraine etc. We are old nations in the Europe. For example Scythians – Sakha Turks are an old European nations and empires in Europe. Ottoman Empire, Avars, Attila’s Huns, Golden Horde Empires. Who is European or not? The first Turks (Look at Proto-Turks in Chinese History) were a blonde race. There are still blonde Turks today (Kiphcak, Cumans. Gagauzia, Western Thracia, Szekely Turks, some Tatars and Bulgarians). In Europe, Slavic-speaking nations are called Slavic, but the same thing is not said for nations belonging to the same language family as Turkish. NO NOOO TURKS AND FINNISH, ESTONIANS, HUNGARIANS IS NOT RELATIVES. FOR EXAMPLE HUNGARIANS CLOSE TO SLAVS AND GERMAN. YES I SEE… THIS IS FUCKING PAN SLAVISM AND GERMAN AFFECTS ONLY AND WITH THE HELP OF CHRISTIANITY.

  • TURGUT 5 months ago

    Correction: Europe is a peninsula in West of Asia.

  • Ear 4 months ago

    For someone capable of bringing up a provocative and interesting question, you’re sure a douche when people disagree with you.

    • Justin 4 months ago

      Sorry you feel that way Mr. Ear Lobe. Sarcasm occasionally seems overly harsh without the benefit of body language or verbal nuance. And perhaps I get irritated once in a while. On the flip side, I don’t think I called anyone a derogatory name like “douche” so there’s that.

  • Ian Kinzel 4 months ago

    What makes Australia and Antarctica not continuous?

    • Justin 4 months ago

      They’re both surrounded by ocean whereas the continents are connected.

      • Ian Kinzel 4 weeks ago

        So North & South America aren’t surrounded by ocean?

        • Justin 1 week ago

          Not individually, no. That’s the point. They’re part of a continuous land mass.

  • duh 3 months ago

    Every land mass on earth is completely surround by water. Just because there are narrower portions of said land masses does not make them not surrounded by water. By your definition Haiti and The Dominican Republic are 2 separate continents, since size plays no part. Oh it has to narrow somewhere in the land mass? Well then Spain, Florida, and numerous other peninsulas are actually continents. Terrible logic. If you want to use continuous land literally, which you try but fail miserably to do, there are no continents on earth. Every single piece of land ends on all sides. Also north and south America are separated by the Panama Canal so I guess man created 2 islands and killed 2 continents eh? The way to have a true continent, by your definition, would be a ring shaped piece of land that encircles the globe and is therefore definitively continuous.

    • Justin 3 months ago

      Right, Florida and Haiti are continents. Thanks for setting me straight.

  • Apipia 2 months ago

    What you said is wrong. The four continents are Afro-Eurasia, America (North and South combined), Antarctica and Australia.

    • Justin 2 months ago

      I know it’s a difficult pill to swallow, “Perth” Andy. But, chin up, there’s nothing wrong with living on a large island.

  • Robert 1 month ago

    According to Stephen Hawking’s book “Unlocking the Universe”, geographically, there are only four continents that are not separated by water: Afro-Eurasia (57% of the land surface), the Americas (28.5%), Antarctica (9%) and Australia (5%). The remaining 0.5% is made up of oceanic islands, mostly scattered within Oceania in the central and south Pacific Ocean. The man-made Suez and Panama Canals are disregarded. So you are correct that the world has 4 continents, but you have ignored the two little ones and split the two big ones into two components, that’s weird.

  • Robert 1 month ago

    According to Stephen Hawking’s book “Unlocking the Universe”, geographically, there are only four continents that are not separated by water: Afro-Eurasia (57% of the land surface), the Americas (28.5%), Antarctica (9%) and Australia (5%). The remaining 0.5% is made up of oceanic islands, mostly scattered within Oceania in the central and south Pacific Ocean. The man-made Suez and Panama Canals are disregarded. So you are correct that the world has 4 continents, but you have ignored the two little ones and split the two big ones into two components, that’s weird.

  • Ron Glenn 1 month ago

    According to “justinholmanography” you are 100% correct Sir!

  • Vito 4 weeks ago

    After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like ignorant people!!
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.

  • Vito 4 weeks ago

    After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like dumb people.
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.
    And why did you delete my post? Is it too complex for you to answer, or because you don’t have an answer, then that’s why you deleted it?

  • Vito 4 weeks ago

    After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like dumb people.
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.
    And why did you delete my post? Is it too complex for you to answer, or because you don’t have an answer, then that’s why you deleted it?

    I can continue to post the question until you answer it or just leave it unanswered, but if you continue to delete it, I will continue posting it, even if it’s hundreds of times every day from different IP addresses and countries. And with time everybody else will see that you keep deleting it because you just don’t know the answer and are embarrassed to admit it and for other people to see…
    All I have to do is just keep pasting it.

    So the other question is, are you a man or a chicken?

  • Vito 4 weeks ago

    After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like dumb people.
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.
    And why did you delete my post? Is it too complex for you to answer, or because you don’t have an answer, then that’s why you deleted it?

    I can continue to post the question until you answer it or just leave it unanswered, but if you continue to delete it, I will continue posting it, even if it’s hundreds of times every day from different IP addresses and countries. And with time everybody else will see that you keep deleting it because you just don’t know the answer and are embarrassed to admit it and for other people to see…

    All I have to do is just keep pasting it.

    So the other question is, are you a man or a chicken? Eh?

  • ptr 4 weeks ago

    Hey Justin,
    why you delete mr vito comment? you freid to give answer?

  • ptr 4 weeks ago

    are u chickenshit??

  • Vito 4 weeks ago

    After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like dumb people.
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.
    And why did you not approve my reply? Is it too complex for you to answer, or because you don’t have an answer, then that’s why you keep rejecting it?

    Would you rather I post it on your other social media places or give you a call or maybe go to your office instead??

  • Vito 4 weeks ago

    You know, Holman, I wouldn’t be surprised if you were one of those people that are convinced that the earth is flat, or that in the middle of a pandemic you should go out without a face mask and when stopped at the entrance of a supermarket you should start arguing that it’s your right not to wear it, that it’s on the constitution!

    But I am convinced that you lack common sense, that you are unable to follow logic, that when you realise that you are wrong you’ll never admit it, and that when you don’t have an answer and have backed into a corner like on this blog with my reply, you’d just continuously disapprove any replies that you can’t handle, and that just makes you into a BIG coward!

    I just looked you up, your linked-in, Facebook and Twitter; and I wonder if your family, friends and “students” also think that you are a coward that is unable to eloquently follow a discussion, and incapable of recognising once you’ve realised that you are wrong. Or maybe you are too foolish to even get to that point…

    Anyway, I will give you a couple of days to think about it, you have an email of mine which I only use for this kind of thing, and if you build up the courage to reply, send me an email, and I will then try one last time to post my original reply, and wait for your answer, or, just leave it there unanswered for others to see what you couldn’t answer.

    If you don’t send me an email, I will then look at your picture, and decide if I feel too sorry for you or not, before I ask you the same question all over your other ways of contact. You decide if that would be worth it for you or not.

    Here is the reply that I’ve sent you which several times you have disapproved, thus not appearing on your blog:

    “After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like dumb people.
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.
    And why did you not approve my reply? Is it too complex for you to answer, or because you don’t have an answer, then that’s why you keep rejecting it?”

  • Yes, Vito. 4 weeks ago

    You know, Holman, I wouldn’t be surprised if you were one of those people that are convinced that the earth is flat, or that in the middle of a pandemic you should go out without a face mask and when stopped at the entrance of a supermarket you should start arguing that it’s your right not to wear it, that it’s on the constitution!

    But I am convinced that you lack common sense, that you are unable to follow logic, that when you realise that you are wrong you’ll never admit it, and that when you don’t have an answer and have backed into a corner like on this blog with my reply, you’d just continuously disapprove any replies that you can’t handle, and that just makes you into a BIG coward!

    I just looked you up, your linked-in, Facebook and Twitter; and I wonder if your family, friends and “students” also think that you are a coward that is unable to eloquently follow a discussion, and incapable of recognising once you’ve realised that you are wrong. Or maybe you are too foolish to even get to that point…

    Anyway, I will give you a couple of days to think about it, you have an email of mine which I only use for this kind of thing (As posted above but without the number 4), and if you build up the courage to reply, send me an email, and I will then try one last time to post my original reply, and wait for your answer, or, just leave it there unanswered for others to see what you couldn’t answer.

    If you don’t send me an email, I will then look at your picture, and decide if I feel too sorry for you or not, before I ask you the same question all over your other ways of contact. You decide if that would be worth it for you or not.

    Here is the reply that I’ve sent you which several times you have disapproved, thus not appearing on your blog:

    “After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like dumb people.
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.
    And why did you not approve my reply? Is it too complex for you to answer, or because you don’t have an answer, then that’s why you keep rejecting it?”

  • Yes, Vito 4 weeks ago

    You know, Holman, I wouldn’t be surprised if you were one of those people that are convinced that the earth is flat, or that in the middle of a pandemic you should go out without a face mask and when stopped at the entrance of a supermarket you should start arguing that it’s your right not to wear it, that it’s on the constitution!

    But I am convinced that you lack common sense, that you are unable to follow logic, that when you realise that you are wrong you’ll never admit it, and that when you don’t have an answer and have backed into a corner like on this blog with my reply, you’d just continuously disapprove any replies that you can’t handle, and that just makes you into a BIG coward!

    I just looked you up, your linked-in, Facebook and Twitter; and I wonder if your family, friends and “students” also think that you are a coward that is unable to eloquently follow a discussion, and incapable of recognising it, once you’ve realised that you are wrong. Or maybe you are too foolish to even get to that point…

    Anyway, I will give you a couple of days to think about it, you have an email of mine which I only use for this kind of thing (As posted above but without the number 4), and if you build up the courage to reply, send me an email, and I will then try one last time to post my original reply, and wait for your answer, or, just leave it there unanswered for others to see what you couldn’t answer.

    If you don’t send me an email, I will then look at your picture, and decide if I feel too sorry for you or not, before I ask you the same question all over your other ways of contact. You decide if that would be worth it for you or not.

    Here is the reply that I’ve sent you which several times you have disapproved, thus not appearing on your blog:

    “After reading this article and some of the replies, I felt compelled to say that in order to establish how many continents there are, it is as simple as first agreeing on what the word continent means down to the very last detail, if you first don’t agree on that, you are just wasting your time and arguing like dumb people.
    Now until that happens, I’m just going to reply to what Justin wrote in this article. He wrote:

    “The word “continent” and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents.”

    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    Please explain based on what you are making that distinction.

    Thank you.
    And why did you not approve my reply? Is it too complex for you to answer, or because you don’t have an answer, then that’s why you keep rejecting it?”

    • Justin 4 weeks ago

      There you go, Vito. I’ll post all of your comments so everyone can see that you’re insane. Try to relax. I haven’t deleted anything. Your posts don’t appear immediately because I have to approve them first. As to your question, let’s say the land mass of a continent must stretch beyond one hemisphere.

  • Yes, Vito 4 weeks ago

    I am very relaxed. You have posted the same reply several times.

    As to your answer… “let’s say”????
    Would you mind sharing where you’ve got that information from? Which source?

    And also, if the land mass must stretch beyond one hemisphere, why are you saying that North America is a different continent than South America????
    Do you believe that North America stretches to the southern hemisphere?
    Please explain,
    Thank you.

  • Yes, Vito 4 weeks ago

    And also do you believe that there is an Eastern and a Western hemisphere? Because Antartica stretches across both of them, so why aren’t you saying that Antartica is also a continent??

  • Sam 4 weeks ago

    Nice subject, in my view it’s 5 continents.

  • Yes, Vito. 3 weeks ago

    Well, it seems that it might be easier for you to answer through all the other places since it’s already been a week from my last reply and you still haven’t approved it or acknowledged my questions. You are maybe too busy or still unable to relax? If the reason is that you were still unable to figure out an answer that makes any sense, just admit it and moved on, it will definitely be much easier on you.
    Again, here below is what I have replied:
    (It’s 5 short questions just in case you have a problem discerning or planning on ignoring some of them)
    ———————————————————
    I am very relaxed. You have posted the same reply several times.
    As to your answer… “let’s say”????
    Would you mind sharing where you’ve got that information from? Which source?

    And also, if the land mass must stretch beyond one hemisphere, why are you saying that North America is a different continent than South America????
    Do you believe that North America stretches to the southern hemisphere?
    Please explain,
    Thank you.

    And also do you believe that there is an Eastern and a Western hemisphere? Because Antartica stretches across both of them, so why aren’t you saying that Antartica is also a continent??

  • Yes, Vito. 3 weeks ago

    Are you waiting to see if I post another 10 messages to then try once again to suggest that I’m insane when you’ve finally decided to approve them all at once????
    Well that won’t happen.
    If you don’t post them by tomorrow it could easily mean that you haven’t checked for over 10 days, so don’t worry, I will let you know through Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and email of course, maybe even by post, just to make things easier for you.
    Surely you must have a quick and clear answer for each of the 5 easy questions that I wrote below.

    Here are the previous 2 messages just in case your website is having technical difficulties again:
    ——————————————————————————-
    Well, it seems that it might be easier for you to answer through all the other places since it’s already been a week from my last reply and you still haven’t approved it or acknowledged my questions. You are maybe too busy or still unable to relax? If the reason is that you were still unable to figure out an answer that makes any sense, just admit it and moved on, it will definitely be much easier on you.
    Again, here below is what I have replied:
    (It’s 5 short questions just in case you have a problem discerning or planning on ignoring some of them)
    ———————————————————
    I am very relaxed. You have posted the same reply several times.
    As to your answer… “let’s say”????
    Would you mind sharing where you’ve got that information from? Which source?

    And also, if the land mass must stretch beyond one hemisphere, why are you saying that North America is a different continent than South America????
    Do you believe that North America stretches to the southern hemisphere?
    Please explain,
    Thank you.

    And also do you believe that there is an Eastern and a Western hemisphere? Because Antartica stretches across both of them, so why aren’t you saying that Antartica is also a continent??

    • Justin 1 week ago

      Vito, I’m not sure you’re capable of grasping the concept of a theoretical hemisphere that can have an infinite number of positions anywhere on the globe. I’m guessing not since you never really understood that posting multiple times won’t make your comment appear faster. Plus I’ll never convince you because you don’t want to be convinced; you’d rather just bicker. So, cool, go ahead and just make fun of me. Ooh, or here’s an idea, get your own blog and show the world your superior genius.

  • Yes, Vito 4 days ago

    It is very funny that you haven’t even realised that you have just contradicted yourself and also just shown that you didn’t even understand what you wrote:)

    And it is exactly because I can, grasp the concept of a theoretical hemisphere, that I have asked you the question in the first place, because it was YOU who previously said that “the land mass of a continent must stretch beyond one hemisphere” in a lousy attempt to explain what would determine a continent!!

    So if now say that “a theoretical hemisphere that can have an infinite number of positions anywhere on the globe”, how can that possibly be an explanation for what a continent is????? Anything can be a continent if you base it on that!! Make up your mind!!

    You have also avoided answering my very simple questions, proving to everyone that you do not have any answers that explain that you haven’t made a big mistake, so instead you have chosen to ignore them and try to divert the attention to something else.

    So here is what you have NOT answered:
    1.
    Where you’ve got that information from? Which source? (About a continent being defined by its land stretching across two hemispheres).
    And in that case, where must the line of those two hemispheres be, for your theory to be valid?
    Because it is either: North, South, East and West, which would make Antartica a Continent and America two Continents, or it’s where ever you like (your “theoretical”) therefore making Australia a Continent, e.t.c.

    2.
    You did not explain WHY Eurasia and Africa are continents and Australia is not.
    1. Isn’t Australia also a mass of continuous land?

    You wrote that size does not matter when defining it as an Island.
    So then can you explain why Eurasia along with Africa is not all one very big island? It is certainly all surrounded by Oceans just like Australia is.
    And that would also mean that America and Antartica are also very big islands…

    ————————————-
    I am clearly asking you specific questions which you are unable to answer, that IS NOT “bickering”.

    I DID NOT expect you to convince me of anything, but just to answer the questions.
    I DO NOT want to show the world anything like you seem to want to, so I do not need a blog like you needed. Blogs and replies are there for people to interact and answer questions, if you can’t handle it maybe it’s not for you.

    And as far as my comment appearing faster by posting multiple times, only you know the answer to that, but the numbers don’t lie, the first time I sent 8 replies because some seemed that they didn’t go through, and you replied within a couple of days, then the second time I only sent 4 replies, and then you replied 3 weeks later, so now with only one reply on my behalf, yours might appear just before Christmas actually proving that the amount of posts DOES determine the reply time.

    And on top of proving that, you will also prove that you are unable to answer those 2 simple questions.

    • Justin 17 mins ago

      Vito,
      You’re talking in circles and I really don’t have the time to read every one of your novellas or address all your awkwardly phrased questions and absurd arguments. This post and the comments represent my opinion. You need not agree. I don’t really care either way. Hopefully you’ve entertained some of my other, more articulate critics. Have a good life.
      Best wishes,
      Justin

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